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14 March 2005 Determining digital image origin using sensor imperfections
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Proceedings Volume 5685, Image and Video Communications and Processing 2005; (2005) https://doi.org/10.1117/12.587105
Event: Electronic Imaging 2005, 2005, San Jose, California, United States
Abstract
In this paper, we demonstrate that it is possible to use the sensor’s pattern noise for digital camera identification from images. The pattern noise is extracted from the images using a wavelet-based denoising filter. For each camera under investigation, we first determine its reference noise, which serves as a unique identification fingerprint. This could be done using the process of flat-fielding, if we have the camera in possession, or by averaging the noise obtained from multiple images, which is the option taken in this paper. To identify the camera from a given image, we consider the reference pattern noise as a high-frequency spread spectrum watermark, whose presence in the image is established using a correlation detector. Using this approach, we were able to identify the correct camera out of 9 cameras without a single misclassification for several hundred images. Furthermore, it is possible to perform reliable identification even from images that underwent subsequent JPEG compression and/or resizing. These claims are supported by experiments on 9 different cameras including two cameras of exactly same model (Olympus C765).
© (2005) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Jan Lukas, Jessica Fridrich, and Miroslav Goljan "Determining digital image origin using sensor imperfections", Proc. SPIE 5685, Image and Video Communications and Processing 2005, (14 March 2005); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.587105
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