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25 April 2005 Two-wavelength Raman detector for noninvasive measurements of carotenes and lycopene in human skin
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Carotenoids are an important part of the antioxidant system in human skin. Carotenoid molecules, provided by fruits and vegetables, are potent free radical quenchers that accumulate in the body. If not balanced by carotenoids and other antioxidants, free radicals may cause premature skin aging, oxidative cell damage, and even skin cancers. As carotenoids depletion may predispose a person to cancer or other disease, rapid and noninvasive measurement of carotenoid level in skin may be of preventive or diagnostic help. At the very least, such measurement can be used to obtain a biomarker for healthy levels of fruit and vegetable consumption. Recently we have developed noninvasive optical technique based on Raman spectroscopy. In this paper we describe compact optical detector for clinical applications that utilizes two-wavelength excitation. It selectively measures the two most prominent skin carotenoids found in the human skin, lycopene and carotenes. According to the medical literature, these two compounds may play different roles in the human body and be part of different tissue defense mechanisms. Dual-wavelength Raman measurements reveal significant differences in the carotenoid composition of different subjects.
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Igor V. Ermakov, Maia R. Ermakova, and Werner Gellermann "Two-wavelength Raman detector for noninvasive measurements of carotenes and lycopene in human skin", Proc. SPIE 5686, Photonic Therapeutics and Diagnostics, (25 April 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.591207;

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