25 April 2005 Ultrasound-guided near-infrared spectroscopy for brain functional study: feasibility analysis and preliminary work
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Recent advances in diffuse optical imaging and spectroscopy (DOIS) allow the noninvasive measurement of local changes in cerebral oxygenation and hemodynamics. Available DOIS devices fall into three categories: time domain (TD), frequency domain (FD) and continuous wave (CW). The TD and FD devices have potential for high spatial resolution, high temporal resolution and high accuracy measurement, but the instrument cost and the hardware size prevent their wide clinical application. Furthermore, the presence of the low scattering cerebrospinal fluid layer (CSF) and its thickness variation during motion challenges quantitative, continuous monitoring of the cortex layer oxygenation and blood content. MRI has been used to provide a priori knowledge of the head anatomy that helps the NIR image reconstruction. However, the technology is expensive and lacks portability. This paper proposes a method that combines the accuracy of a TD/FD system and the portability of a CW device. With the optical baseline measured by a TD or FD device and the layer thickness characterized by an ultrasound transducer, a conventional CW system may be able to quantify the cortex layer optical absorption with high accuracy. In this paper, the feasibility of using ultrasound guided CW spectroscopy to monitor brain activities was studied on a multi layer head model using Monte Carlo simulation and order of magnitude analysis. A forward algorithm based on diffuse approximation and 2D Fourier Transform was used to optimize the source detector separation. Both analytical and neuron network approaches were developed for inverse calculation of the cortex layer absorption in real time. An ultrasound transducer was used to monitor the thickness of different layers surrounding the cerebral cortex. The concept of ultrasound guided CW spectroscopy was demonstrated by numerical simulation on a 2 layer head model and the use of the ultrasound transducer for layer thickness characterization was verified by animal and bench top results.
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Ronald Xu, Ronald Xu, Bo Qiang, Bo Qiang, Jun Liu, Jun Liu, "Ultrasound-guided near-infrared spectroscopy for brain functional study: feasibility analysis and preliminary work", Proc. SPIE 5686, Photonic Therapeutics and Diagnostics, (25 April 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.589626; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.589626

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