8 April 2005 In vivo measurement of fluorescence emission in the human prostate during photodynamic therapy
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Abstract
Among the challenges to the clinical implementation of photodynamic therapy (PDT) is the delivery of a uniform photodynamic dose to induce uniform damage to the target tissue. As the photodynamic dose depends on both the local sensitizer concentration and the local fluence rate of treatment light, knowledge of both of these factors is essential to the delivery of uniform dose. In this paper, we investigate the distribution and kinetics of the photosensitizer motexafin lutetium (MLu, Lutrin) as revealed by its fluorescence emission. Our current prostate treatment protocol involves interstitial illumination of the organ via cylindrical diffusing fibers (CDF’s) inserted into the prostate though clear catheters. For planning and treatment purposes, the prostate is divided into 4 quadrants. We use one catheter in each quadrant to place an optical fiber-based fluorescence probe into the prostate. This fiber is terminated in a beveled tip, allowing it to deliver and collect light perpendicular to the fiber axis. Excitation light is provided by a 465 nm light emitting diode (LED) source coupled to a dichroic beamsplitter, which passes the collected fluorescence emission to a CCD spectrograph. Spectra are obtained before and after PDT treatment in each quadrant of the prostate and are analyzed via a linear fitting algorithm to separate the MLu fluorescence from the background fluorescence originating in the plastic catheter. A computer-controlled step motor allows the excitation/detection fiber to be moved along the catheter, building up a linear profile of the fluorescence emission spectrum of the tissue as a function of position. We have analyzed spectral fluorescence profiles obtained in 4 patients before and after MLu-mediated PDT. We find significant variation both within individual prostates and among patients. Within a single quadrant, we have observed the fluorescence signal to change by as much as a factor of 3 over a distance of 2 cm. Comparisons of pre- and post-PDT spectra allow a quantification treatment-induced photobleaching. Like the drug distribution, the extent of photobleaching varies widely among patients. In two cases, we observed bleaching of approximately 50% of the drug, while others exhibited negligible photobleaching.
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Jarod C. Finlay, Jarod C. Finlay, Timothy C. Zhu, Timothy C. Zhu, Andreea Dimofte, Andreea Dimofte, Diana Stripp, Diana Stripp, S. Bruce Malkowicz, S. Bruce Malkowicz, Richard Whittington, Richard Whittington, Jeremy Miles, Jeremy Miles, Eli Glatstein, Eli Glatstein, Stephen M. Hahn, Stephen M. Hahn, } "In vivo measurement of fluorescence emission in the human prostate during photodynamic therapy", Proc. SPIE 5689, Optical Methods for Tumor Treatment and Detection: Mechanisms and Techniques in Photodynamic Therapy XIV, (8 April 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.590709; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.590709
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