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12 April 2005 F2-laser writing of silica optical waveguides in silicone rubber
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F2-laser writing of silica (SiO2) optical waveguides has been successfully demonstrated on the surface of silicone [(SiO(CH3)2)n] rubber by the photochemical modification of silicone into silica. The 2-mm-thick silicone rubber was exposed to the 157-nm F2-laser beam through a thin (~0.2 mm) air layer. A proximity Cr-on-CaF2 photomask with 8- to 16-micron-wide slits controlled the exposure size to define the width of the silica waveguide. Optimum laser conditions to generate crack-free waveguides with good transparency were found by varying the laser fluence, pulse repetition rate and total exposure. The optimized waveguides were found to guide both red (~635-nm) and infrared (~1550-nm) wavelengths with light end-fired from standard single-mode fiber.
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Masayuki Okoshi, Jianzhao Li, and Peter Robert Herman "F2-laser writing of silica optical waveguides in silicone rubber", Proc. SPIE 5713, Photon Processing in Microelectronics and Photonics IV, (12 April 2005);

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