22 January 2005 Electron-beam lithography for micro- and nano-optical applications
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Abstract
Direct-write electron-beam lithography has proven to be a powerful technique for fabricating a variety of micro and nano-optical devices. Binary E-beam lithography is the workhorse technique for fabricating optical devices that require complicated precision nano-scale features. We describe a bi-layer resist system and virtual-mark height measurement for improving the reliability of fabricating binary patterns. Analog E-beam lithography is a newer technique that has found significant application in the fabrication of diffractive optical elements. We describe our techniques for fabricating analog surface-relief profiles in E-beam resist, including a technique for overcoming the problem of resist heating. We also describe a multiple field size exposure scheme for suppression of diffraction orders produced field-stitch errors in blazed diffraction gratings on non-flat substrates.
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Daniel W. Wilson, Daniel W. Wilson, Richard E. Muller, Richard E. Muller, Pierre M. Echternach, Pierre M. Echternach, Johan P. Backlund, Johan P. Backlund, } "Electron-beam lithography for micro- and nano-optical applications", Proc. SPIE 5720, Micromachining Technology for Micro-Optics and Nano-Optics III, (22 January 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.600784; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.600784
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