4 April 2005 Laser writing of nonlinear optical crystal lines in glass
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Laser-induced micro-fabrication has many advantages such as maskless, single-step and very fast processing compared with current techniques such as photolithography and reactive ion etching. Laser-induced crystallization is now a big challenge in glass materials. A new technique for the writing of crystal dots and lines in glass, called "samarium (rare-earth) atom heat processing", has been developed, and the writing of several crystal lines such as b-BaB2O4 (b-BBO), SmxBi1-xBO3, Sm2(MoO4)3, and KSm(PO3)4 showing second harmonic generations and ferroelectricities has been succeeded. It has been also demonstrated that two-dimensional crystal curved lines with bending angles of 0~90o or with sine-curve shapes can be written using the samarium atom heat processing. The features of this new technique and the quality of crystal lines have been clarified.
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Takayuki Komatsu, Takayuki Komatsu, Rie Ihara, Rie Ihara, Yasuhiko Benino, Yasuhiko Benino, Takumi Fujiwara, Takumi Fujiwara, } "Laser writing of nonlinear optical crystal lines in glass", Proc. SPIE 5723, Optical Components and Materials II, (4 April 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.589452; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.589452

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