7 April 2005 Development and characterization of CMOS avalanche photodiode arrays
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Avalanche photodiode (APD) arrays fabricated by using complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) fabrication technology offer the possibility of combining these high sensitivity detectors with cost effective, on-board, complementary circuitry. Using CMOS techniques, Radiation Monitoring Devices has developed prototype pixels with active diameters ranging from 5 to 60 microns and with measured quantum efficiencies of up to 65%. The prototype CMOS APD pixel designs support both proportional and Geiger modes of photo-detection. When operating in Geiger mode, these APD’s act as single-optical-photon-counting detectors that can be used for time-resolved measurements under signal-starved conditions. We have also designed and fabricated CMOS chips that contain not only the APD pixels, but also associated circuitry for both actively and passively quenching the self-propagating Geiger avalanche. This report presents the noise and timing performance for the prototype CMOS APD pixels in both the proportional and Geiger modes of operation. It compares the quantum efficiency and dark-count rate of different pixel designs as a function of the applied bias and presents a discussion of the maximum count rates that is obtained with each of the two types of quenching circuits for operating the pixel in Geiger mode. Preliminary data on the application of the APD pixels to laser ranging and fluorescent lifetime measurement is also presented.
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William G. Lawrence, William G. Lawrence, James F. Christian, James F. Christian, Frank L. Augustine, Frank L. Augustine, Michael R. Squillante, Michael R. Squillante, Gerald Entine, Gerald Entine, "Development and characterization of CMOS avalanche photodiode arrays", Proc. SPIE 5726, Semiconductor Photodetectors II, (7 April 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.591351; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.591351

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