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25 March 2005 Multifunctional III-nitride dilute magnetic semiconductor epilayers and nanostructures as a future platform for spintronic devices
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This work focuses on the development of materials and growth techniques suitable for future spintronic device applications. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) was used to grow high-quality epitaxial films of varying thickness and manganese doping levels by introducing bis-cyclopentadienyl as the manganese source. High-resolution X-ray diffraction indicates that no macroscopic second phases are formed during growth, and Mn containing films are similar in crystalline quality to undoped films Atomic force microscopy revealed a 2-dimensional MOCVD step-flow growth pattern in the Mn-incorporated samples. The mean surface roughnesses of optimally grown Ga1-xMnxN films were almost identical to that from the as-grown template layers, with no change in growth mechanism or morphology. Various annealing steps were applied to some of the samples to reduce compensating defects and to investigate the effects of post processing on the structural, magnetic and opto-electronic properties. SQUID measurements showed an apparent ferromagnetic hysteresis behavior which persisted to room temperature. An optical absorption band around 1.5 eV was observed via transmission studies. This band is assigned to the internal Mn3+ transition between the 5E and the partially filled 5T2 levels of the 5D state. The broadening of the absorption band is introduced by the high Mn concentration. Recharging of the Mn3+ to Mn2+ was found to effectively suppress these transitions resulting in a reduction of the magnetization. The structural quality, and the presence of Mn2+ ions were confirmed by EPR spectroscopy, meanwhile no Mn-Mn interactions indicative of clustering were observed. The absence of doping-induced strain in Ga1-xMnxN was observed by Raman spectroscopy.
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Matthew H. Kane, Martin Strassburg, Ali Asghar, Qing Song, Shalini Gupta, Jayantha Senawiratne, Christoph Hums, Ute Haboeck, Axel Hoffmann, Dmitry Azamat, Wolfgang Gehlhoff, Nikolaus Dietz, Z. John Zhang, Christopher J. Summers, and Ian T. Ferguson "Multifunctional III-nitride dilute magnetic semiconductor epilayers and nanostructures as a future platform for spintronic devices", Proc. SPIE 5732, Quantum Sensing and Nanophotonic Devices II, (25 March 2005);

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