14 March 2005 Fabrication and performance of tuneable single-mode VCSELs emitting in the 750- to 1000-nm range
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Abstract
The growing demand on low cost high spectral purity laser sources at specific wavelengths for applications like tuneable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) and optical pumping of atomic clocks can be met by sophisticated single-mode VCSELs in the 760 to 980 nm wavelength range. Equipped with micro thermo electrical cooler (TEC) and thermistor inside a small standard TO46 package, the resulting wavelength tuning range is larger than +/- 2.5 nm. U-L-M photonics presents manufacturing aspects, device performance and reliability data on tuneable single-mode VCSELs at 760, 780, 794, 852, and 948 nm lately introduced to the market. According applications are O2 sensing, Rb pumping, Cs pumping, and moisture sensing, respectively. The first part of the paper dealing with manufacturing aspects focuses on control of resonance wavelength during epitaxial growth and process control during selective oxidation for current confinement. Acceptable resonance wavelength tolerance is as small as +/- 1nm and typical aperture size of oxide confined single-mode VCSELs is 3 μm with only few hundred nm tolerance. Both of these major production steps significantly contribute to yield on wafer values. Key performance data for the presented single-mode VCSELs are: >0.5 mW of optical output power, >30 dB side mode suppression ratio, and extrapolated 10E7 h MTTF at room temperature based on several millions of real test hours. Finally, appropriate fiber coupling solutions will be presented and discussed.
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Martin Grabherr, Martin Grabherr, Dieter Wiedenmann, Dieter Wiedenmann, Roland Jaeger, Roland Jaeger, Roger King, Roger King, } "Fabrication and performance of tuneable single-mode VCSELs emitting in the 750- to 1000-nm range", Proc. SPIE 5737, Vertical-Cavity Surface-Emitting Lasers IX, (14 March 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.590178; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.590178
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