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12 April 2005 Adaptive spatial-temporal filtering applied to x-ray fluoroscopy angiography
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Adaptive filtering of temporally varying X-ray image sequences acquired during endovascular interventions can improve the visual tracking of catheters by radiologists. Existing techniques blur the important parts of image sequences, such as catheter tips, anatomical structures and organs; and they may introduce trailing artifacts. To address this concern, an adaptive filtering process is presented to apply temporal filtering in regions without motion and spatial filtering in regions with motion. The adaptive filtering process is a multi-step procedure. First a normalized motion mask that describes the differences between two successive frames is generated. Secondly each frame is spatially filtered using the specific motion mask to specify different types of filtering in each region. Third an IIR filter is then used to combine the spatially filtered image with the previous output image; the motion mask thus serves as a weighted input mask to determine how much spatial and temporal filtering should be applied. This method results in improving both the stationary and moving fields. The visibility of static anatomical structures and organs increases, while the motion of the catheter tip and motion of anatomical structures and organs remain unblurred and visible during interventional procedures.
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Gert Schoonenberg, Marc Schrijver, Qi Duan, Richard Kemkers, and Andrew Laine "Adaptive spatial-temporal filtering applied to x-ray fluoroscopy angiography", Proc. SPIE 5744, Medical Imaging 2005: Visualization, Image-Guided Procedures, and Display, (12 April 2005);

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