In research conducted at academic and community hospitals in the United States since 2001, this paper examines complex human and technological relationships employed to renegotiate behavior within hospital administrative and clinical cultures. In the planning and implementation of PACS in a four-facility hospital we will enter into what can be described as processes of "adoption" and "resistance", seemingly opposite approaches to system implementation, which I argue are in fact key responses to planning, design, and customization of imaging and information systems in a context of convergence.
In a larger context of convergence known as NBIC tools (nanotechnology, biotechnology, information technology, and cognitive sciences) it has become increasingly clear to leaders in the field that it is essential to redesign organizational technologies. A novel system has little chance of being fully utilized by conventional organizational structures in an era of system convergence.
The challenge of embracing a larger systems perspective lies in opening untapped potential within the healthcare enterprise by preparing the ground for reflection on new approaches to training, and bridging specialized knowledge across computer engineering, clinical decision making, and organizational perspectives for the benefit of patient care.
Case studies will demonstrate how organizational and system design technologies are crucial in insuring that PACS implementation strategies can encourage the emergence of new levels of quality for patient care. The goal is to provide successful design-build models that are true to organizational specificity, persons, and clinical practices undergoing change and uncertainty.