In extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) environments both laser produced plasma (LPP) and gas discharge produced plasma (GDPP) configurations face serious issues regarding components lifetime and performance under particle bombardment, in particular collector mirrors. For both configurations debris, fast ions, fast neutrals, and condensable EUV radiator fuels (Li, Sn) can affect collector mirrors. In addition, collector mirrors are exposed to impurities (H,C,O,N), off-band radiation (depositing heat) and highly-charged ions leading to their degradation and consequently limiting 13.5 nm light reflection intensity.
The IMPACT (Interaction of Materials with charged Particles and Components Testing) experiment at Argonne studies radiation-induced, thermodynamic and kinetic mechanisms that affect the performance of optical mirror surfaces. Results of optical component interaction with singly-charged inert gases (Xe) and alternate radiators (e.g. Sn) are presented for glancing incidence mirrors (i.e., Ru, Pd) at bombarding energies between 100-1000 eV at room temperature. Measurements conducted include: In-situ surface analysis: Auger electron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, direct recoil spectroscopy and low-energy ion scattering spectroscopy; Ex-situ surface analysis: X-ray reflectivity, X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy and at-wavelength EUV reflectivity (NIST-SURF).