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4 May 2005 Analysis for collapse behavior of resist pattern in short develop time process using atomic force microscope
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Adhesion property of resist is characterized with DPAT (direct peeling with atomic force microscope (AFM) tip) method using 193 nm resist patterns of 180 nm dot shape which were developed for various developing time between 12 and 120 seconds in order to analyze the phenomenon which the short develop time process had led to suppress the pattern collapse. Surface free energy and refractive index of resist film treated with the developing time were also investigated from a thermodynamic point of view. The balance model among surface energy was adopted for analyzing intrusion phenomenon of developer solution into the resist-substrate interface. It can be explained quantitatively that the intrusion energy of developer solution acts to weaken the adhesion strength of resist pattern to the substrate. Furthermore, the intrusion energy became larger with increasing developing time. Analysis with the DPAT method indicates that the pattern collapse occurs accompanied with interface and cohesion destruction. Interface-scientifically speaking, the short develop time process proved to be effective to suppress the pattern collapse because of higher adhesion energy of the resist pattern to the substrate in shorter developing time.
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Masakazu Sanada, Osamu Tamada, Atsushi Ishikawa, and Akira Kawai "Analysis for collapse behavior of resist pattern in short develop time process using atomic force microscope", Proc. SPIE 5753, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXII, (4 May 2005);

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