4 May 2005 Evaluation of photo resist coating performance of small dispense nozzle size in photolithographic spin coating process
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Abstract
As critical dimensions (CD) in semiconductor devices decrease past the 130 nm node, the requirements of photoresists to meet process and manufacturing needs increase significantly. This is reflected in a dramatic increase in photoresist cost. Reduction of photo resist consumption to reduce costs while maintaining resist coating quality is becoming a major challenge for process and equipment engineers in semiconductor industry. In this study, six small dispense nozzle sizes (0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 and 1.0mm) were evaluated during the spin coating process. The maximum acceptable resist dispense time (the longest time with continuous resist flow for a given amount of resist at a given dispense distance) was determined. It was found that maximum acceptable resist dispense time was affected primarily by dispense nozzle size and material, pump function and resist properties such as viscosity. The relationship between minimum acceptable dispense rate (based on maximum acceptable resist dispense time) and various dispense nozzle sizes has been determined. The minimum acceptable resist dispense rate for a given dispense nozzle size did not appreciably change no matter what resist volume was used. As expected, the results indicated that maximum acceptable resist dispense time increased as dispense volume increased for a given nozzle size. The resist coating thickness mean and range of six resists with viscosity from 2 cp to 30 cp was reported by use of several combinations of resist dispense volume and dispense nozzle size. Resist coating test indicates that resist consumption can be reduced to 0.4 to 0.5 ml per coating with acceptable thickness mean and range for resists of viscosity less than 10 cp, and 0.9 to 1.0 ml per coating for resists with viscosity greater than 10 cp.
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Xiao Li, Tom Lehmann, Warren Greene, "Evaluation of photo resist coating performance of small dispense nozzle size in photolithographic spin coating process", Proc. SPIE 5753, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXII, (4 May 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.598471; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.598471
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