4 May 2005 Influence of the watermark in immersion lithography process
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Abstract
In the liquid immersion lithography, uses of the cover material (C/M) films were discussed to reduce elution of resist components to fluid. With fluctuation of exposure tool or resist process, it is possible to remain of waterdrop on the wafer and watermark (W/M) will be made. The investigation of influence of the W/M on resist patterns, formation process of W/M, and reduction of pattern defect due to W/M will be discussed. Resist patterns within and around the intentionally made W/M were observed in three cases, which were without C/M, TOK TSP-3A and alkali-soluble C/M. In all C/M cases, pattern defect were T-topped shapes. Reduction of pattern defects due to waterdrop was examined. It was found that remained waterdrop made defect. It should be required to remove waterdrop before drying, and/or to remove the defect due to waterdrop. But new dry technique and/or unit will be need for making no W/M. It was examined that the observation of waterdrop through the drying step and simulative reproduction of experiment in order to understand the formation mechanism of W/M. If maximum drying time of waterdrop using immersion exposure tool is estimated 90 seconds, the watermark of which volume and diameter are less than 0.02 uL and 350um will be dried and will make pattern defect. The threshold will be large with wafer speed become faster. From result and speculations in this work, it is considered that it will be difficult to development C/M as single film, which makes no pattern defects due to remained waterdrop.
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Daisuke Kawamura, Daisuke Kawamura, Tomoyuki Takeishi, Tomoyuki Takeishi, Koutarou Sho, Koutarou Sho, Kentarou Matsunaga, Kentarou Matsunaga, Naofumi Shibata, Naofumi Shibata, Kaoru Ozawa, Kaoru Ozawa, Satoru Shimura, Satoru Shimura, Hideharu Kyoda, Hideharu Kyoda, Tetsu Kawasaki, Tetsu Kawasaki, Seiki Ishida, Seiki Ishida, Takayuki Toshima, Takayuki Toshima, Yasunobu Oonishi, Yasunobu Oonishi, Shinichi Ito, Shinichi Ito, "Influence of the watermark in immersion lithography process", Proc. SPIE 5753, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXII, (4 May 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.599314; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.599314
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