4 May 2005 The effects of chemical gradients and photoresist composition on lithographically generated line edge roughness
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Abstract
Previous work has demonstrated the dependence of photoresist line edge roughness (LER) on the image-log-slope of the aerial image over a wide range of conditions; however, this relationship does not describe the influence of other factors such as photoresist composition or processing conditions on LER. This work introduces the concept of chemical gradients in the photoresist film rather than gradients in aerial image intensity as being a governing factor in the formation of photoresist LER. This concept is used to explain how differences in acid and base concentration in the photoresist lead directly to differences in observed LER. Numerous photoresist formulations were made over a wide range of compositions using 193 nanometer photoresist polymers as the basis. Experimental results coupled with results from simulation show that increasing the gradient of photoacid and hence increasing the gradient of protected polymer and the overall chemical contrast of the system reduces printed LER.
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Timothy B. Michaelson, Timothy B. Michaelson, Adam R. Pawloski, Adam R. Pawloski, Alden Acheta, Alden Acheta, Yukio Nishimura, Yukio Nishimura, C. Grant Willson, C. Grant Willson, } "The effects of chemical gradients and photoresist composition on lithographically generated line edge roughness", Proc. SPIE 5753, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXII, (4 May 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.599848; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.599848
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