4 May 2005 Understanding quencher mechanisms by considering photoacid-dissociation equilibrium in chemically amplified resists
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The quencher mechanisms in Chemically-Amplified (CA) resists have been investigated. To explain the acid distribution with a variety of acid strengths in the presence of quencher, a new full Acid-Equilibrium-Quencher model (AEQ model) is proposed and examined in solid-model-CA-resist systems. To observe the reactions in the CA resists, real-time Fourier-Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) is employed during post-exposure bake (PEB). The FTIR peaks of the protection groups are detected to measure the reaction kinetics during PEB. The solid-model-CA resists used in this work consist of both a KrF-acetal-type resist with a diazomethane Photo-Acid Generator (PAG) (weaker-photoacid system) and an ArF-ester-type resist with a sulfonium-salt PAG (stronger-photoacid system). The obtained FTIR results are analyzed using conventional Full-Dissociation-Quencher model (FDQ model) and the new AEQ model. The kinetic analysis of the model resists was performed for different quencher loadings. For the weaker-photoacid system, the AEQ model much more accurately predicts the deprotection-reaction kinetics than the FDQ model with the change of quencher content. This suggests the necessity of introduction of the acid-dissociation concept in the case of the weaker photoacid. For the stronger-photoacid system, both the AEQ and conventional FDQ models adequately predict the kinetic results. This shows that the conventional FDQ model is accurate enough to simulate the super-strong photoacid system. Finally, the new AEQ model is introduced in the UC Berkeley STORM resist simulator. Some simulation examples are shown in the paper.
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Seiji Nagahara, Seiji Nagahara, Lei Yuan, Lei Yuan, Wojtek Jacob Poppe, Wojtek Jacob Poppe, Andrew Neureuther, Andrew Neureuther, Yoshiyuki Kono, Yoshiyuki Kono, Atsushi Sekiguchi, Atsushi Sekiguchi, Koichi Fujiwara, Koichi Fujiwara, Tsuyoshi (Gary) Watanabe, Tsuyoshi (Gary) Watanabe, Kazuo Taira, Kazuo Taira, Shiro Kusumoto, Shiro Kusumoto, Takanori Nakano, Takanori Nakano, Tsutomu Shimokawa, Tsutomu Shimokawa, } "Understanding quencher mechanisms by considering photoacid-dissociation equilibrium in chemically amplified resists", Proc. SPIE 5753, Advances in Resist Technology and Processing XXII, (4 May 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.598949; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.598949

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