12 May 2004 Examination of the prevalence and abundance of noncondensable, nonreactive optical surface contaminants in the scanner environment
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Abstract
With the advent of 193 nm scanners, concerns about species with the potential to deposit films on unprotected optical surfaces has uncovered a long list of reactive and condensable compounds that have occupied the efforts of exposure tool and filter system suppliers for the past several years. As more experience and data is gathered from 193 nm tools now running in volume production fabs, new classes of noncondensable, nonreactive species of concern have been discovered. Some of these compounds contain refractory elements such as Si and P and can potentially lead to permanent lens contamination. The authors describe work performed to better understand the prevalence and abundance of such refractory compounds, with special emphasis on advanced sampling and analysis methods needed to accurately characterize and quantify the species of interest. Data from used filter post-mortem analysis is compared with standard airborne sampling shows a much richer data set in which trace species can be examined. Progression of such species through a serial filter array provides new insight to filter kinetics and prediction of filter performance through life.
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F. Belanger, P. Cate, A. Grayfer, R. Petersen, D. Ruede, "Examination of the prevalence and abundance of noncondensable, nonreactive optical surface contaminants in the scanner environment", Proc. SPIE 5754, Optical Microlithography XVIII, (12 May 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.610665; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.610665
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