12 May 2004 High refractive index immersion fluids for 193 nm immersion lithography
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Abstract
For the next-generation immersion lithography technology, there is a growing interest in the immersion fluids having a refractive index larger than 1.5 and low absorbance at 193nm wavelength. In this paper, we report our effort in identifying new immersion fluid candidates. The absolute refractive index values and thermo-optic coefficients, dn/dT, were measured with 1x10-4 and 1x10-5 accuracy respectively at 193nm wavelength. The results showed promising candidates having refractive index ranging from 1.5 to 1.65 with low absorbance at 193nm wavelength. Preliminary imaging results with a new immersion fluid gave good 65nm Line/Space patterns. However, the minimum exposure time of 20sec is about ten times as needed for water, indicating the need to further reduce the absorbance of the immersion fluid.
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Bridgette Budhlall, Bridgette Budhlall, Gene Parris, Gene Parris, Peng Zhang, Peng Zhang, Xiaoping Gao, Xiaoping Gao, Zarka Zarkov, Zarka Zarkov, Brenda Ross, Brenda Ross, Simon Kaplan, Simon Kaplan, John Burnett, John Burnett, } "High refractive index immersion fluids for 193 nm immersion lithography", Proc. SPIE 5754, Optical Microlithography XVIII, (12 May 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.600025; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.600025
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