12 May 2004 Influence of illumination tilt on imaging
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Tilt in the optic axis of the illumination system with respect to the projection lens manifests itself as a shift of the illumination source intensity distribution in the pupil plane of that projection lens. The impact of this error category upon various types of patterns and among various imaging configurations is studied through image simulation as well as experiment. Issues addressed will include:-Methods of measuring illuminator tilt -Sensitivity of sample cases to illumination tilt, including pattern placement issues as well as pattern fidelity issues -Aberration influence and coupling with illumination tilt influences -Ramifications of illuminator tilt impacts. Finally, comments will be made regarding this error category as it may impact the increasingly stringent process complexities and reducing linewidth sizes required by the processes being developed for the near future.
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Mark C. Phillips, Steven D. Slonaker, Chris Treadway, Greg Darby, "Influence of illumination tilt on imaging", Proc. SPIE 5754, Optical Microlithography XVIII, (12 May 2004); doi: 10.1117/12.606127; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.606127

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