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12 May 2005 The impact of mask topography on binary reticles at the 65nm node
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Abstract
Most lithography simulation software, such as OPC decoration engines, employ the thin-mask approximation for imaging calculations. While it is well known that a more rigorous approach is often needed for alternating phase-shift reticles, a solution to the full Maxwell equations is rarely used for binary masks. In the past, both the patterns and the thickness of the patterns for COG and attenuated PSM were relatively small compared with the illuminating wavelength. For the future technology nodes, this will not be true. For example, scattering bars are typically a quarter to a third of the size of the main feature. This means that a 65nm isolated line will typically have 65nm to 85nm assist features (mask scale). We have found a non-constant bias through pitch for low k1 imaging that is not found with the thin-mask approach. COG and attenuated binary masks are simulated for varying feature sizes and for both lines and spaces.
© (2005) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Mark D. Smith, Trey Graves, Jeffrey D. Byers, and Chris A. Mack "The impact of mask topography on binary reticles at the 65nm node", Proc. SPIE 5754, Optical Microlithography XVIII, (12 May 2005); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.601523
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