16 May 2005 Chemo-mechanical model of biological membranes for actuation mechanisms
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Plants have the ability to develop large mechanical force from chemical energy available with bio-fuels. The energy released by ATP hydrolysis assists the transport of ions and fluids to achieve volumetric expansion and homeostasis. Materials that develop pressure and hence strain similar to bio-materials are classified as nastic materials. Recent calculations for controlled actuation of an active material inspired by biological transport mechanism demonstrated the feasibility of developing such a material with actuation energy densities on the order of 100 kJ/m3. Our initial investigation was based on capsules that generate pressure thus causing strain in the surrounding matrix material. Our present work focuses on our efforts to fabricate a representative actuation structure and describes the chemo-mechanical constitutive equation for such a material. The actuator considered in this work is a laminated arrangement of a hydraulic actuator plate with microscopic barrels and a fluid reservoir kept separated by a semi-permeable membrane dispersed with biological transporters. We present here our initial design and a mathematical model to predict the fluid flux and strain developed in such an actuator.
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Vishnu-Baba Sundaresan, Vishnu-Baba Sundaresan, Donald J. Leo, Donald J. Leo, } "Chemo-mechanical model of biological membranes for actuation mechanisms", Proc. SPIE 5761, Smart Structures and Materials 2005: Active Materials: Behavior and Mechanics, (16 May 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.599764; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.599764

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