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14 February 2005 Determination of forming limits of sheet metals by speckle interferometry
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Proceedings Volume 5776, Eighth International Symposium on Laser Metrology; (2005)
Event: Eighth International Conference on Laser Metrology, 2005, Merida, Mexico
Forming Limit Diagrams (FLD’s) can be defined by the criteria of either diffuse or localized necks. We used Electronic Speckle Pattern Interferometry (ESPI) in commercial 1100 aluminum sheet metals annealed at 400°C to determine the strains at which both types of neck started in uniaxial tension (U) and in quasi plane strain tension (PS) tests. In biaxial (B) loading we observed only the localized neck, but we were also able to detect a small defective spot at which fracture was incubated. The strains that produced the diffuse neck and the defective spot were approximately comparable to those predicted by Swift’s criterion for plastic instability. The difference between the FLD defined by a diffuse neck or by a defective spot leading to fracture and the one defined by a localized neck was found to be very noticeable in the U tests and less important, but still significant, in the PS and B tests. We found also that maximum load occurred at some point within the diffuse neck region and that afterwards the load carrying capacity was still substantial. We thus conclude that the decision on the criterion to use should be based on parts quality, safety and costs.
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C. Vial-Edwards, B. Guelorget, Manuel Francois, Ignacio Lira, and M. Münzenmayer "Determination of forming limits of sheet metals by speckle interferometry", Proc. SPIE 5776, Eighth International Symposium on Laser Metrology, (14 February 2005);

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