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31 May 2005 Photomultiplication with low excess noise factor in MWIR to optical fiber compatible wavelengths in cooled HgCdTe mesa diodes
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Abstract
Infrared avalanche diodes are key components in diverse applications such as eye-safe burst illumination imaging systems and quantum cryptography systems operating at telecommunications fiber wavelengths. HgCdTe is a mature infrared detector material tunable over all infrared wavelengths longer than ~850nm. HgCdTe has fundamental properties conducive to producing excellent detectors with low noise gain. The huge asymmetry between the conduction and valence bands in HgCdTe is a necessary starting point for producing impact ionization with low excess noise factor. Other factors in the band structure are also favorable. The low bandgap necessitates at least multi-stage thermoelectric cooling. Mesa diode structures with electron initiated multiplication have been designed for gains of up to around 100 at temperatures at or above 80K. Backside illuminated, flip-chip, test diode arrays have been fabricated by MOVPE using a process identical to that required for producing large imaging arrays. Test diode results have been obtained with the following parameters characterized, dark current vs. voltage and temperature, gain vs. voltage, and spectral response as a function of wavelength and bias. The effect of changing active region cadmium composition and active region doping is presented along with an assessment of some of the trade-offs between dark leakage current, gain, operating voltage and temperature of operation.
© (2005) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Ralph S. Hall, Neil T. Gordon, Jean Giess, Janet E. Hails, Andrew Graham, David C. Herbert, David J. Hall, Paul Southern, John W. Cairns, David J. Lees, and Timothy Ashley "Photomultiplication with low excess noise factor in MWIR to optical fiber compatible wavelengths in cooled HgCdTe mesa diodes", Proc. SPIE 5783, Infrared Technology and Applications XXXI, (31 May 2005); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.603386
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