The microelectronic industry has gone through an enormous technical evolution in the last four decades. Both the tech-nological and economic challenges of microelectronics were increasing consistently in the past few years. This paper discusses the future trends in micro- and nano-technologies with special emphasis on lithography. The trends of minia-turization will be sketched with reference to the International Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors (ITRS). After a description of general trends in technology node timing, an overview will be given on the future lithography require-ments and the technical solutions including options for post-optical lithography as, for example, Extreme UV.
"Lithography trends based on projections of the ITRS (Invited Paper)", Proc. SPIE 5835, 21st European Mask and Lithography Conference, (16 June 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.637301; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.637301