4 August 2005 Photon: the minimum dose of electromagnetic radiation
Author Affiliations +
Abstract
A radio engineer can hardly think about smaller amount of electromagnetic radiation than given by a single oscillation cycle of a unit charge in a dipole. When solved from Maxwell's equations for a dipole of one wavelength, the energy of the emitted radiation cycle obtains the form Eλ = 2/3 hf, where the Planck constant h can be expressed in terms of the unit charge, e, the vacuum permeability, μ0, the velocity of light, c, and a numerical factor as h = 1.1049*2π3e2μ0c=6.62607*10-34 [kgm2/s]. A point emitter like an atom can be regarded as a dipole in the fourth dimension. The length of such dipole is measured in the direction of the line element cdt, which in one oscillation cycle means the length of one wavelength. For a dipole in the fourth dimension, three space directions are in the normal plane which eliminates the factor 2/3 from the energy expression thus leading to Planck's equation Eλ = hf for the radiation emitted by a single electron transition in an atom. The expression of the Planck constant obtained from Maxwell's equations leads to a purely numerical expression of the fine structure constant α=1/(1.1049*4π3) = 1/137 and shows that the Planck constant is directly proportional to the velocity of light. When applied to Balmer's formula, the linkage of the Planck constant to the velocity of light shows, that the frequency of an atomic oscillator is directly proportional to the velocity of light. This implies that the velocity of light is observed as constant in local measurements. Such an interpretation makes it possible to convert relativistic spacetime with variable time coordinates into space with variable clock frequencies in universal time, and thus include relativistic phenomena in the framework of quantum mechanics.
© (2005) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE). Downloading of the abstract is permitted for personal use only.
Tuomo Suntola, Tuomo Suntola, } "Photon: the minimum dose of electromagnetic radiation", Proc. SPIE 5866, The Nature of Light: What Is a Photon?, (4 August 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.620777; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.620777
PROCEEDINGS
9 PAGES


SHARE
RELATED CONTENT

The problematic photon
Proceedings of SPIE (October 01 2013)
Resonant energy absorption and the CTF hypothesis
Proceedings of SPIE (October 01 2013)
0.75 atoms improve the clock signal of 10,000 atoms
Proceedings of SPIE (February 20 2017)
Radiative instability of electron beams in carbon nanotubes
Proceedings of SPIE (September 08 2006)
Theory of self-consistent light-atom interaction
Proceedings of SPIE (May 29 2002)
Sheet-beam 0.1THz extended interaction oscillator
Proceedings of SPIE (August 04 2009)
Scaling theory for homogenization of the Maxwell equations
Proceedings of SPIE (November 14 1997)

Back to Top