4 August 2005 Propagating topological singularities: the photon
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Abstract
At its foundations, Maxwell's theory of Electrodynamics, like thermodynamics, is a topological theory independent from geometric constraints of metric, scales, or gauge symmetries. One of the most interesting features of Electromagnetism is its relationship to the transport of momentum and energy by means of photons. This article utilizes a topological perspective to discuss the classical features and quantum concepts associated with the photon, including Topological Spin, Topological Torsion, Helicity and Chirality.
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R. M. Kiehn, R. M. Kiehn, } "Propagating topological singularities: the photon", Proc. SPIE 5866, The Nature of Light: What Is a Photon?, (4 August 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.619731; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.619731
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