18 August 2005 Phase shifting mask as a precision instrument for characterizing image-forming optical systems
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Abstract
A series of phase shifting test mask patterns are described to monitor various effects in image-forming optical systems. Five novel classes of test mask patterns have been developed for in-situ characterization of illumination, aberrations, and mask performance in optical lithography. The monitors combine knowledge of optical effects with the topography enabled by state-of-the-art phase shift masks to create patterns that are sensitive to one aspect of projection printing. Each design is believed to be theoretically the most sensitive pattern to the desired effect. A variety of experimental and simulation studies at 193nm wavelength have validated their scientific principles and have helped allow understanding of limitations due to realistic imaging conditions, most notably the electromagnetic interaction with mask topography. All measurements are conducted in the image plane and are advantageous when access to the remainder of the optical system is limited. Although these monitors have been developed for optical lithography, possible applications in other fields of optics are discussed.
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Gregory McIntyre, Gregory McIntyre, Garth Robbins, Garth Robbins, Andrew Neureuther, Andrew Neureuther, } "Phase shifting mask as a precision instrument for characterizing image-forming optical systems", Proc. SPIE 5878, Advanced Characterization Techniques for Optics, Semiconductors, and Nanotechnologies II, 587808 (18 August 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.612751; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.612751
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