Using NIR spectroscopic techniques, correlation analysis and regression analysis for soil parameter estimation was conducted with raw soil samples collected in a cornfield and a forage field. Soil parameters analyzed were soil moisture, soil organic matter, nitrate nitrogen, soil electrical conductivity and pH. Results showed that all soil parameters could be evaluated by NIR spectral reflectance. For soil moisture, a linear regression model was available at low moisture contents below 30 % db, while an exponential model can be used in a wide range of moisture content up to 100 % db. Nitrate nitrogen estimation required a multi-spectral exponential model and electrical conductivity could be evaluated by a single spectral regression. According to the result above mentioned, a real time soil sensor system based on fiber optics and spectroscopy was developed. The sensor system was composed of a soil subsoiler with four optical fiber probes, a spectrometer, and a control unit. Two optical fiber probes were used for illumination and the other two optical fiber probes for collecting soil reflectance from visible to NIR wavebands at depths around 30 cm. The spectrometer was used to obtain the spectra of reflected lights. The control unit consisted of a data logging device, a personal computer, and a pulse generator. The experiment showed that clear photo-spectral reflectance was obtained from the underground soil. The soil reflectance was equal to that obtained by the desktop spectrophotometer in laboratory tests. Using the spectral reflectance, the soil parameters, such as soil moisture, pH, EC and SOM, were evaluated.