1 September 2005 Remotely mapping river water quality using multivariate regression with prediction validation
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Abstract
Remote spectral sensing offers an attractive means of mapping river water quality over wide spatial regions. While previous research has focused on development of spectral indices and models to predict river water quality based on remote images, little attention has been paid to subsequent validation of these predictions. To address this oversight, we describe a retrospective analysis of remote, multispectral Compact Airborne Spectrographic Imager (CASI) images of the Ohio River and its Licking River and Little Miami River tributaries. In conjunction with the CASI acquisitions, ground truth measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration and turbidity were made for a small set of locations in the Ohio River. Partial least squares regression models relating the remote river images to ground truth measurements of chlorophyll-a concentration and turbidity for the Ohio River were developed. Employing these multivariate models, chlorophyll-a concentrations and turbidity levels were predicted in river pixels lacking ground truth measurements, generating detailed estimated water quality maps. An important but often neglected step in the regression process is to validate prediction results using a spectral residual statistic. For both the chlorophyll-a and turbidity regression models, a spectral residual value was calculated for each river pixel and compared to the associated statistical confidence limit for the model. These spectral residual statistic results revealed that while the chlorophyll-a and turbidity models could validly be applied to a vast majority of Ohio River and Licking River pixels, application of these models to Little Miami River pixels was inappropriate due to an unmodeled source of spectral variation.
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Chris L. Stork, Chris L. Stork, Bradley C. Autrey, Bradley C. Autrey, } "Remotely mapping river water quality using multivariate regression with prediction validation", Proc. SPIE 5884, Remote Sensing and Modeling of Ecosystems for Sustainability II, 588408 (1 September 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.616852; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.616852
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