8 September 2005 Results from a contamination experiment on the ISS
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While investigating the feasibility of the accommodation of X-ray instrumentations on the International Space Station (ISS) a major question remained still open, i.e. the unknown extent of degradation of X-ray mirror surfaces and X-ray detector material caused by contamination in the ISS environment. Therefore, a sample expose experiment has been started in 2001 to investigate these effects in detail using the Russian expose facility provided by the Russian space industry company RKK Energia. While Kayser-Threde GmbH was responsible to organize and coordinate the experiment, gold-coated Zerodur and silicon samples have been provided by the Max-Planck-Institute (MPE). In total 5 samples were flown with the expose facility and have been exposed to the ISS environment for a total duration of 756 days. The analyses of 4 of them are presented in this paper. X-ray reflection measurements before and after the experiment at MPE's PANTER X-ray test facility and microscopy inspections revealed a thin structured surface layer which reduced the X-ray reflection of the exposed mirror samples dramatically. In addition, the samples have been analyzed with a scanning electron microscope, an energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer, and electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis. The results of all these measurements revealing the degradation of the X-ray mirrors and polished silicon detector surfaces are presented.
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Peter Friedrich, Peter Friedrich, Peter Predehl, Peter Predehl, Norbert Meidinger, Norbert Meidinger, Lothar Strüder, Lothar Strüder, Monika Vongehr, Monika Vongehr, Wolfgang Burkert, Wolfgang Burkert, Michael Freyberg, Michael Freyberg, Gisela Hartner, Gisela Hartner, Heinrich Bräuninger, Heinrich Bräuninger, Günther Hasinger, Günther Hasinger, Stefan Hofer, Stefan Hofer, Timo Stuffler, Timo Stuffler, Franz Hagl, Franz Hagl, Christian Hollerith, Christian Hollerith, } "Results from a contamination experiment on the ISS", Proc. SPIE 5900, Optics for EUV, X-Ray, and Gamma-Ray Astronomy II, 59000N (8 September 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.616948; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.616948

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