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16 September 2005 Towards parameter-free classification of sound effects in movies
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The problem of identifying intense events via multimedia data mining in films is investigated in this work. Movies are mainly characterized by dialog, music, and sound effects. We begin our investigation with detecting interesting events through sound effects. Sound effects are neither speech nor music, but are closely associated with interesting events such as car chases and gun shots. In this work, we utilize low-level audio features including MFCC and energy to identify sound effects. It was shown in previous work that the Hidden Markov model (HMM) works well for speech/audio signals. However, this technique requires a careful choice in designing the model and choosing correct parameters. In this work, we introduce a framework that will avoid such necessity and works well with semi- and non-parametric learning algorithms.
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Selina Chu, Shrikanth Narayanan, and C.-C. Jay Kuo "Towards parameter-free classification of sound effects in movies", Proc. SPIE 5909, Applications of Digital Image Processing XXVIII, 59091J (16 September 2005);

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