The growth of high-quality InN and indium rich group III-nitride alloys are of crucial importance for the development of high-efficient energy conversion systems, THz emitters and detectors structures, as well as for high-speed linear/nonlinear optoelectronic elements. However, the fabrication of such device structures requires the development of growth systems with overlapping processing windows in order to construct high-quality monolithic integrated device structures. While gallium and aluminum rich group III-nitrides are being successfully grown by organometallic chemical vapor deposition (OMCVD), the growth of indium rich group III-nitrides presents a challenge due to the high volatility of atomic nitrogen compared to indium. In order to suppress the thermal decomposition at optimum processing temperatures, a new, unique high-pressure chemical vapor deposition (HPCVD) system has been developed, allowing the growth of InN at temperatures close to those used for gallium/aluminum-nitride alloys.
The properties of InN layers grown in the laminar flow regime with reactor pressures up to 15 bar, are reported. Real-time optical characterization techniques have been applied to analyze gas phase species and are highly sensitive the InN nucleation and steady state growth, allowing the characterization of surface chemistry at a sub-monolayer level. The ex-situ analysis of the InN layers shows that the absorption edge in the InN shifts below 0.7 eV as the ammonia to TMI precursor flow ratio is lowered below 200. The results indicate that the absorption edge shift in InN is closely related to the In:N stoichiometry.