31 August 2005 Applications of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) for x-ray diagnostics and spectroscopy
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Thin films of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) give the opportunity to realize crystal optics with arbitrary geometry by mounting it on a mould of any shape. A specific feature of a HOPG is its mosaicity accompanied by mosaic focusing and high integral reflectivity. These characteristics are of interest for compact x-ray diagnostic tools and spectrometers. Another interesting feature is, due to the mosaic spread of the HOPG crystals, that it is possible also with a beam of low divergence to record a spectrum in a broad energy range even within one laser shot. That means that the HOPG spectrometer can act as a polychromator. The latter feature is important if irreversible changes in samples should be investigated or, e.g., if in time-resolved pump-probe experiments a spectrum should be recorded before sample degradation takes place due to high pump intensities. Different design considerations for a compact HOPG-spectrometer based on experimental and theoretical studies will be presented. For applications in plasma diagnostics and XAFS (x-ray absorption fine structure) the attainable energy resolution plays a central role and has been intensively investigated. The results of our investigations demonstrate that HOPG can be used as powerful optics for x-ray diagnostics as well as for x-ray absorption and emission spectroscopy.
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Herbert Legall, Holger Stiel, Peter-Victor Nickles, Aniouar A. Bjeoumikhov, Norbert Langhoff, Michael Haschke, Vladimir A. Arkadiev, Reiner Wedell, "Applications of highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) for x-ray diagnostics and spectroscopy", Proc. SPIE 5918, Laser-Generated, Synchrotron, and Other Laboratory X-Ray and EUV Sources, Optics, and Applications II, 591802 (31 August 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.614847; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.614847

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