14 September 2005 Advancements in time-resolved x-ray laser induced time-of-flight photoelectron spectroscopy
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Abstract
Time-resolved soft x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy is used to probe the non-steady-state evolution of the valence band electronic structure of laser heated ultra-thin (50 nm) metal foils and bulk semiconductors. Single-shot soft x-ray laser induced time-of-flight photoelectron spectroscopy with picosecond time resolution was used in combination with optical measurements of the disassembly dynamics that have shown the existence of a metastable liquid phase in fs-laser heated metal foils persisting 4-5 ps. This metastable phase is studied using a 527 nm wavelength 400 fs laser pulse containing 0.3 - 2.5 mJ laser energy focused in a large 500 × 700 μm2 spot to create heated conditions of 0.2 - 1.8 × 1012 W cm-2 intensity. The unique LLNL COMET compact tabletop soft x-ray laser source provided the necessary high photon flux, highly monoenergetic, picosecond pulse duration, and coherence for observing the evolution of changes in the valence band electronic structure of laser heated metals and semiconductors with picosecond time resolution. This work demonstrates the continuing development of a powerful new technique for probing reaction dynamics and changes of local order on surfaces on their fundamental timescales including phenomena such as non-thermal melting, chemical bond formation, intermediate reaction steps, and the existence of transient reaction products.
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A. J. Nelson, A. J. Nelson, J. Dunn, J. Dunn, K. Widmann, K. Widmann, T. Ao, T. Ao, Y. Ping, Y. Ping, J. Hunter, J. Hunter, A. Ng, A. Ng, } "Advancements in time-resolved x-ray laser induced time-of-flight photoelectron spectroscopy", Proc. SPIE 5919, Soft X-Ray Lasers and Applications VI, 59190J (14 September 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.615542; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.615542
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