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9 October 2005 Improving the efficiency of OLEDs by utilizing metallophthalocyanines
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In this paper, the effects of hole injection layer (HIL) on the performance of typically used tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3) based OLEDs have been investigated. Three different HIL materials were used: copper phthalocyanine (CuPc), magnesium phthalocyanine (MgPc) and zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc). The Metallophthalocyanines (MPcs) will be used to construct single hole injection layer (HIL) and double HIL (d-HIL). In the OLEDs, Alq3 acts as the emitting layer and electron transport layer. Although d-HIL structures show higher efficiency than that of the reference device, the highest current efficiency ~ 4.02 cd/A corresponds to the 15 nm ZnPc HIL device. Compared to an current efficiency of ~3.29 cd/A and a power efficiency of ~0.99 lm/W (at 100 cd/m2 luminance) of the reference device, an 15 nm ZnPc HIL device has ~22% higher current efficiency and ~67% higher power efficiency. The reasons for the improvements will be discussed.
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Wallace C. H. Choy, Y. J. Liang, K. N. Hui, and H. H. Fong "Improving the efficiency of OLEDs by utilizing metallophthalocyanines", Proc. SPIE 5937, Organic Light-Emitting Materials and Devices IX, 59371Y (9 October 2005);

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