Essentially new approach to the x-ray microscopy, based on application cone-shaped polycapillary structure of Kumakhov optics is described. The given approach allows on the basis of usual middle-focus source to receiveimages of shadow objects with the resolution about 1 μm. In addition it is possible to receive images of self-luminous objects with the same resolution. The description of experimental installation and results of researching of shadow and self-luminous objects is submitted. First results of the image computer processing with the purpose of elimination polycapillary grid are also presented.