7 February 2006 Manufacture and development of multilayer diffraction gratings
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Abstract
The OMEGA EP Facility includes two high-energy, short-pulse laser beams that will be focused to high intensity in the OMEGA target chamber, providing backlighting of compressed fusion targets and investigating the fast-ignition concept. To produce 2.6-kJ output energy per beam, developments in grating compressor technology are required. Gold-coated diffraction gratings limit on-target energy because of their low damage fluence. Multilayer dielectric (MLD) gratings have shown promise as high-damage-threshold, high-efficiency diffraction gratings suitable for use in high-energy chirped-pulse amplification [ B. W. Shore et al., J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 14, 1124 (1997).] Binary 100-mm-diam MLD gratings have been produced at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) using large-aperture, holographic exposure and reactive ion-beam etching systems. A diffraction efficiency of greater than 99.5% at 1053 nm has been achieved for gratings with 1740 grooves/mm, with a 1:1 damage threshold of 5.49 J/cm2 diffracted beam fluence at 10 ps. To demonstrate the ability to scale up to larger substrates, several 100-mm substrates have been distributed over an aperture of 47 × 43 cm and successfully etched, resulting in high efficiency over the full aperture. This paper details the manufacture and development of these gratings, including the specifics of the MLD coating, holographic lithography, reactive ion etching, reactive ion-beam cleaning, and wet chemical cleaning.
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J. Keck, J. Keck, J.B. Oliver, J.B. Oliver, T.J. Kessler, T.J. Kessler, H. Huang, H. Huang, J. Barone, J. Barone, J. Hettrick, J. Hettrick, A.L. Rigatti, A.L. Rigatti, T. Hoover, T. Hoover, K.L. Marshall, K.L. Marshall, A.W. Schmid, A.W. Schmid, A. Kozlov, A. Kozlov, T.Z. Kosc, T.Z. Kosc, "Manufacture and development of multilayer diffraction gratings", Proc. SPIE 5991, Laser-Induced Damage in Optical Materials: 2005, 59911G (7 February 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.638819; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.638819
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