15 November 2005 Enabling nanoscale science and engineering via highly flexible low-cost maskless lithography
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The role of lithography in the future of nanoscale science and engineering is to put high-density spatial information into nanoscale assemblies. Because information content determines the functionality of such assemblies, lithography will be a key enabler. Conventional lithographic techniques generally lack the flexibility, low cost and the resolution that research in nanoscale science and engineering requires. Although no single lithographic technique is likely to be a panacea, it is important to seek novel approaches that meet the needs of researchers, and open a path to directly manipulating nanoparticles and macromolecules. We review the various forms of lithography and focus special attention on maskless zone-plate-array lithography, assessing its impact, advantages and extendibility to the limits of the lithographic process. Nanoscale assemblies will require control at the macromolecular level, and this has begun with research on templated self assembly. Going beyond that to the control and utilization of the information content of nanoparticles and molecules will require innovations whose origin is uncertain at this point.
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Henry I. Smith, Henry I. Smith, Rajesh Menon, Rajesh Menon, Amil Patel, Amil Patel, David Chao, David Chao, Michael Walsh, Michael Walsh, G. Barbastathish, G. Barbastathish, "Enabling nanoscale science and engineering via highly flexible low-cost maskless lithography", Proc. SPIE 6002, Nanofabrication: Technologies, Devices, and Applications II, 60020B (15 November 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.632117; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.632117

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