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25 October 2005 Advanced transmission systems using distributed Raman amplification technologies
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Abstract
This paper introduces practical and high-performance transmission systems that employ distributed Raman amplification (DRA) technologies. The systems incorporate DRA/EDFA hybrid amplifiers as inline amplifiers with limited DRA pump powers. These powers are determined with respect to the practical safety and reliability of the systems against intense pump light. The practical aspects and merits of our systems are described both in detail and qualitatively. It is shown that a hybrid amplifier system using DSF performs better than one using SMF with limited pump powers. The use of DRA means that the optical SNR of the former system is typically about 2-3 dB higher than that of the latter. Moreover, this paper reports successful results of long-haul transmission field trials using the hybrid amplifier scheme in the L-band over installed DSF with an aggregate capacity of 1.28 Tbit/s (32 x 43 Gbit/s).
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Hiroji Masuda "Advanced transmission systems using distributed Raman amplification technologies", Proc. SPIE 6012, Optical Transmission Systems and Equipment for WDM Networking IV, 601204 (25 October 2005); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.633153
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