24 October 2005 Three-dimensional imaging with arrays of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes
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Lincoln Laboratory has developed 32×32-pixel ladar focal planes comprising silicon Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes and high-speed all-digital CMOS timing circuitry in each pixel. In Geiger-mode operation, the APD can detect as little as a single photon, producing a digital CMOS-compatible voltage pulse. This pulse is used to stop a high-speed counter in the pixel circuit, thus digitizing the time of arrival of the optical pulse. This "photon-to-digital conversion" simultaneously achieves single-photon sensitivity and 0.25-ns timing precision. We discuss the development of these focal planes and present imagery from ladar systems that use them.
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Brian F. Aull, Brian F. Aull, Richard M. Marino, Richard M. Marino, "Three-dimensional imaging with arrays of Geiger-mode avalanche photodiodes", Proc. SPIE 6014, Active and Passive Optical Components for WDM Communications V, 60140D (24 October 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.633531; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.633531

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