1 December 2005 Optimal design of multi-stage discrete Raman amplifiers incorporating midway isolators
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Proceedings Volume 6019, Passive Components and Fiber-based Devices II; 60190D (2005); doi: 10.1117/12.635435
Event: Asia-Pacific Optical Communications, 2005, Shanghai, China
Abstract
Multi-stage discrete Raman amplifiers with midway isolators to suppress double Rayleigh backscattering (DRB) are fully investigated at constant nonlinearity. The results show that placing Raman pumps at the last stage only is sufficient. For most conditions, two isolators can achieve adequate performance improvement, while more isolators only lead to slightly OSNR increase. The optimum positions of the isolators are insensitive to varied Raman gains, nonlinear phase shifts and Rayleigh coefficients, but sensitive to different fiber lengths as well as Raman pumping schemes. Moreover, backward pumping scheme can derive better noise performance than bi-directional pumping when using midway isolators.
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Zhi Tong, Huai Wei, Shuisheng Jian, "Optimal design of multi-stage discrete Raman amplifiers incorporating midway isolators", Proc. SPIE 6019, Passive Components and Fiber-based Devices II, 60190D (1 December 2005); doi: 10.1117/12.635435; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.635435
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KEYWORDS
Optical isolators

Raman spectroscopy

Amplifiers

Signal attenuation

Backscatter

Optical amplifiers

Phase shifts

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