Indigenous development of high power CO2 laser technology and industrial application of lasers represent two important mandates of the laser program, being pursued at Centre for Advanced Technology (CAT), India. The present paper describes some of the important laser material processing studies, involving cladding and dissimilar welding, performed in authors' laboratory. The first case study describes how low heat input characteristics of laser cladding process has been successfully exploited for suppressing dilution in "Colmonoy6" (a nickel-base hardfacing alloy) deposits on austenitic stainless steel components. Crack free hardfaced deposits were obtained by controlling heating and cooling rates associated with laser treatment. The results show significant advantage over Colmonoy 6 deposits made by GTAW, where a 2.5 mm thick region of dilution (with reduced hardness) develops next to substrateiclad interface. The next work involves laser-assisted deposition of graded "Stellite6" (a Co-base hardfacing alloy) with smooth transition in chemical composition and hardness for enhanced resistance against cracking, esp. under thermal cycling conditions. The following two case studies demonstrate significant improvement in corrosion properties of type 304L stainless steel by laser surface alloying, achieved through cladding route. The following case study demonstrates engineering of fusion zone microstructure of end plug dissimilar weld (between alloy D9 and type 3 16M stainless steel) by controlled preferential displacement of focused laser beam, which, in-turn, enhanced its resistance against solidification cracking. Crater
appearing at the termination point of laser weld is also eliminated by ramping of laser power towards the end of laser welding. The last case study involves engineering of fusion zone microstructure of dissimilar laser weld between type 304 austenitic stainless steel and stabilized 17%Cr ferritic stainless steel by controlling welding parameters.