17 February 2006 Support vector machine as digital image watermark detector
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We perceive the digital watermark detection as classification problem in image processing. We classify watermarked images as positive class whilst unwatermarked images as negative class. Support Vector Machine (SVM) is used as classifier of the watermarked and unwatermarked digital images. Two watermarking schemes i.e. Cox's spread spectrum (SS) and Single Value Decomposition (SVD) are used to embed watermark into digital images. These algorithms are selected based on their different level of robustness to Stirmark attacks. The payload of the watermark used for both algorithms is consistent at certain number of bits. SVM is trained with both the watermarked and unwatermarked images. Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) graphs are plotted to assess the statistical detection behavior of both the correlation detector and SVM classifier. We found that straight forward application of SVM leads to generalization problem. We suggest remedies to preprocess the training data in order to achieve substantially better performance from SVM classifier than those resulting from the straightforward application of SVM. Both watermarked and unwatermarked images are attacked under Stirmark and are then tested with the correlation detectors and SVM classifier. A comparison of the ROC of the correlation detectors and SVM classifier is performed to assess the accuracy of SVM classifier relative to correlation detectors. We found that SVM classifier has higher robustness to Stirmark attacks.
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Patrick H. H. Then, Patrick H. H. Then, Y. C. Wang, Y. C. Wang, "Support vector machine as digital image watermark detector", Proc. SPIE 6064, Image Processing: Algorithms and Systems, Neural Networks, and Machine Learning, 60641K (17 February 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.649469; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.649469

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