2 February 2006 Multiple watermarking: a vector space projection approach
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Abstract
We present a new paradigm for the insertion of multiple watermarks in images. Instead of an explicitly defined embedding process, the watermark embedding is achieved implicitly by determining a feasible image meeting multiple desired constraints. The constraints are designed to ensure that the watermarked image is visually indistinguishable from the original and produces a positive detection result when subjected to detectors for the individual watermarks even in the presence of signal processing operations, particularly compression. We develop useful mathematical definitions of constraint sets for different visual models, for transform domain compression, and for both spread-spectrum and quantization index modulation (QIM) watermark detection scenarios. Using the constraints with a generalized vector space projections method (VSPM), we determine a watermarked signal. Experimental results demonstrate the flexibility and usefulness of the presented methodology in addressing multiple watermarking scenarios while providing implicit shaping of the watermark power to meet visual requirements.
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Oktay Altun, Oktay Altun, Gaurav Sharma, Gaurav Sharma, Mark Bocko, Mark Bocko, } "Multiple watermarking: a vector space projection approach", Proc. SPIE 6065, Computational Imaging IV, 60650O (2 February 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.658290; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.658290
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