16 February 2006 Detecting digital image forgeries using sensor pattern noise
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Abstract
We present a new approach to detection of forgeries in digital images under the assumption that either the camera that took the image is available or other images taken by that camera are available. Our method is based on detecting the presence of the camera pattern noise, which is a unique stochastic characteristic of imaging sensors, in individual regions in the image. The forged region is determined as the one that lacks the pattern noise. The presence of the noise is established using correlation as in detection of spread spectrum watermarks. We proposed two approaches. In the first one, the user selects an area for integrity verification. The second method attempts to automatically determine the forged area without assuming any a priori knowledge. The methods are tested both on examples of real forgeries and on non-forged images. We also investigate how further image processing applied to the forged image, such as lossy compression or filtering, influences our ability to verify image integrity.
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Jan Lukáš, Jan Lukáš, Jessica Fridrich, Jessica Fridrich, Miroslav Goljan, Miroslav Goljan, } "Detecting digital image forgeries using sensor pattern noise", Proc. SPIE 6072, Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VIII, 60720Y (16 February 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.640109; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.640109
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