16 February 2006 Fingerprinting digital elevation maps
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Digital elevation maps (DEMs) provide a digital representation of 3-D terrain information. In civilian applications, high-precision DEMs carry a high commercial value owing to the large amount of effort in acquiring them; and in military applications, DEMs are often used to represent critical geospatial information in sensitive operations. These call for new technologies to prevent unauthorized distribution and to trace traitors in the event of information leak related to DEMs. In this paper, we propose a new digital fingerprinting technique to protect DEM data from illegal re-distribution. The proposed method enables reliable detection of fingerprints from both 3-D DEM data set and its 2-D rendering, whichever format that is available to a detector. Our method starts with extracting from a DEM a set of critical contours either corresponding to important topographic features of the terrain or having application-dependent importance. Fingerprints are then embedded into these critical contours by employing parametric curve modeling and spread spectrum embedding. Finally, a fingerprinted DEM is constructed to incorporate the marked 2-D contours. Through experimental results, we demonstrate the robustness of the proposed method against a number of challenging attacks applied to either DEMs or their contour representations.
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Hongmei Gou, Hongmei Gou, Min Wu, Min Wu, } "Fingerprinting digital elevation maps", Proc. SPIE 6072, Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VIII, 60720Z (16 February 2006); doi: 10.1117/12.643276; https://doi.org/10.1117/12.643276

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