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17 February 2006 A reliability engineering approach to digital watermark evaluation
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Abstract
Robust watermarks are evaluated in terms of image fidelity and robustness. We extend this framework and apply reliability testing to robust watermark evaluation. Reliability is the probability that a watermarking algorithm will correctly detect or decode a watermark for a specified fidelity requirement under a given set of attacks and images. In reliability testing, a system is evaluated in terms of quality, load, capacity and performance. To measure quality that corresponds to image fidelity, we compensate for attacks to measure the fidelity of attacked watermarked images. We use the conditional mean of pixel values to compensate for valumetric attacks such as gamma correction and histogram equalization. To compensate for geometrical attacks, we use error concealment and perfect motion estimation assumption. We define capacity to be the maximum embedding strength parameter and the maximum data payload. Load is then defined to be the actual embedding strength and data payload of a watermark. To measure performance, we use bit error rate (BER) and receiver operating characteristics (ROC) and area under the curve (AUC) of the ROC curve of a watermarking algorithm for different attacks and images. We evaluate robust watermarks for various quality, loads, attacks, and images.
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Hyung Cook Kim and Edward J. Delp "A reliability engineering approach to digital watermark evaluation", Proc. SPIE 6072, Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents VIII, 60721N (17 February 2006); https://doi.org/10.1117/12.648154
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