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1 March 2006 Monitoring tissue formation and organization of engineered tendon by optical coherence tomography
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The uniaxial orientation and bundle formation of collagen fibres determine the mechanical properties of tendons. Thus the particular challenge of tendon tissue engineering is to build the tissue with a highly organized structure of collagen fibres. Ultimately the engineered construct will be used as autologous grafts in tendon surgery, withstanding physiological loading. We grew pig tenocytes in porous chitosan scaffolds with multiple microchannels of 250-500 μm. The cell proliferation and production of extra-cellular matrix (ECM) within the scaffolds have been successfully monitored by Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT), a bench-top OCT system equipped with a broadband light source centred at 1300 nm. Under sterile condition, the measurements were performed on-line and in a non-destructive manner. In addition, a novel method based on OCT imaging, which calculates the occupation ratio of the microchannel derived from the scattered intensity has been developed. It is confirmed that the occupation ratio is correlated to cell proliferation and ECM production in the scaffolds. Thus this method has been utilised to assess the effect of different culture conditions on the tissue formation. The use of a perfusion bioreactor has resulted in a significantly (p<1e-3) higher cell proliferation and matrix production.
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P. O. Bagnaninchi, Y. Yang, N. Maffulli, R. K. Wang, and A. El Haj "Monitoring tissue formation and organization of engineered tendon by optical coherence tomography", Proc. SPIE 6084, Optical Interactions with Tissue and Cells XVII, 608419 (1 March 2006);

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